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8 Personnel costs

 1st half 20121st half 2011Changes
Wages and salaries136,102133,7542,348
Social security contributions45,04844,389659
Employee leaving indemnity and other benefits839735104
Other costs10,80810,78424

The increase in labour costs is mainly due to changes in contractual trends.

As shown below, there were no significant changes in the number of employees, both at overall level and in terms of the individual category.

The average number of employees in the period in question, analysed by category, is as follows:

 1st half 20121st half 2011Changes
Middle managers35633917
Employees 3,3913,34645
Workers2,6382,707 (69)
Average number 6,5156,520(5)

On the whole, the average pro-capita labour cost for the first half of 2012 was equal to EUR 30 thousand, up 1.7% compared to the figures registered in the corresponding period of the previous year.

As at 30 June 2012, the effective number of employees was 6,494 units (6,530 units as at 30 June 2011).

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